Peer-Reviewed Abstracts On The Effects Of Magnetics On Physical Ailments

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The Quantron Resonance System (QRS) is a pulsed magnetic frequency field system that provides non-invasive electrical stimulation in the milli-volt range of exposed tissues.  In this respect it is similar to other FDA-approved magnetic stimulation devices used in healing of bone non-union and delayed union fractures.

See the extensive bibliography below on the effects of these types of fields on human and animal biology.  In addition to the bone healing actions, these fields’ other primary benefits are to improve circulation and reduce edema, improve tissue oxygenation and reduce muscle tension. A consequence of these actions is the secondary benefit of reducing physiologic stress and improving sleep.  Because of these actions the QRS is commonly used as a complementary therapy in musculoskeletal and rehabilitation management and therapy.  Commonly benefited conditions include tendonitis/bursitis, myofascial syndromes, muscle and ligament sprains, strains and spasm, skin trauma and inflammations, scars and contractures and joint swelling and pain.  Because of the basic biologic actions of these fields, the QRS is frequently found to help in the management of acute and chronic pain.

Peer-reviewed abstracts on the effects of magnetics on physical ailments

The impact of treatment with magnetic fields on a variety of physical ailments are presented in the following descriptions of recent studies, published in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

Next
to specific QRS research there are many scientific studies available on
pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) and health. Below is an extensive
list of peer-reviewed abstracts discussing the effects of pulsed electromagnetic
fields on several ailments. The list below demonstrates the potential
of PEMFs but is in no way a complete list of benefits.

Peer-Reviewed
Scientific Studies on the Effects of Magnetics on Physical Ailments

The
impact of treatment with magnetic fields on a variety of physical ailments
are presented in the following descriptions of recent studies, published
in peer-reviewed scientific journals. See all the conditions listed below
with abstracts to follow:

Alzheimer’s Disease,
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Ankle Sprain, Arthritis, Blepharitis, Bone
Fracture, Bronchitis, Cancer, Heart Disease, Chronic Venous Insufficiency,
Dental Problems, Depression, Dermatitis, Diabetes, Diseases of the Larynx,
Duchenne-Erb Disease, Endometriosis, Endometritis, Epilepsy, Gastroduodenitis,
General Glaucoma, Hair Loss, Headache, Hemophilia, Hepatitis, Herniated
Disk, Hip Problems, Joint Disease, Kidney Problems, Lung Disease, Lupus,
Erythematosus, Multiple Sclerosis, Muscle Injury, Neck Pain, Nerve Damage,
Neurological Disorders, Osteoarthritis, Osteochondrosis, Osteonecrosis,
Osteoporosis, Otitis, Externa Pancreatitis, Parkinson’s Disease,
Peripheral Neuritis, Pneumonia, Post-Herpetic Neuralgia, Pseudoarthrosis,
Psychiatric Disorders, Respiratory Problems, Sexual Disorders, Sleep Disorders,
Spinal Cord Injury, Strok,e Synovitis, Tendonitis, Tourette’s Syndrome,,
Tuberculosis, Ulcers (Gastric & Duodenal), Ulcers (Trophic), Urinary
Problems, Wound Healing

.Alzheimer’s
Disease

On review, after applying
external electromagnetic fields ranging 5 to 8 Hz, large improvements
were detected in Alzheimer’s patients. These included improved visual
memory, drawing performance, spatial orientation, mood, short-term memory
and social interactions.
R.
Sandyk, “Alzheimer’s Disease: Improvement of Visual Memory and
Visuoconstructive Performance Treatment with Picotesla Range Magnetic
Fields,” International Journal of Neurosci, 76(3-4), June 1994, p.
185-225.

As generally supported, a persons biological daily clock may causally
be related to memory deterioration in Alzheimer’s patients and in
the ageing. Synchronizing of the circadian rhythms using magnetic fields,
(this article suggests) could lead to improved memory for those affected.

R. Sandyk, et al., “Age-related Disruption of Circadian Rhythms:
Possible Relationship to Memory Impairment and Implications for Therapy
with Magnetic Fields,” International Journal of Neurosci, 59(4),
August 1991, p. 259-262.

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Amyotrophic Lateral
Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s Disease)

A study of three patients
with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis were treated with a pulsed magnetic
field administered by a Magnobiopulse apparatus. Given three times a week
for approximately 75 sessions to achieve maximum benefits, all three experienced
beneficial effects.
A.
Bellosi & R. Berget, “Pulsed Magnetic Fields: A Glimmer of Hope
for Patients Suffering from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis,” Second
World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine,

8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.

Ankle Sprain

Results of this double-blind,
placebo-controlled study indicated that treatment with two 30-minute sessions
of noninvasive pulsed radio frequency therapy is effective in significantly
decreasing the time required for edema reduction in patients suffering
from lateral ankle sprains. A.A. Pilla & L. Kloth, “Effect of
Pulsed Radio Frequency Therapy on Edema in Ankle Sprains: A Multisite
Double-Blind Clinical Study,” Second World Congress for Electricity
and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy,
p. 300.

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Arthritis

Three hours of exposure to a 50-Hz magnetic field in this study revealed
that experimentally induced inflammation and suppressed arthritis in rats
was significantly inhibited as a result.
Y.
Mizushima, et al., “Effects of Magnetic Field on Inflammation,”
Experientia, 31(12), December 15, 1975, p.1411-1412.

Another double-blind, placebo-controlled research study on the effects
of pulsed electrical fields administered over a 4 week period revealed
significant improvement in patients receiving the therapy relative to
the controls.J.C.
Reynolds, “The Use of Implantable Direct Current Stimulation in Bone
Grafted Foot and Ankle Arthrodeses: A Retrospective Review,” Second
World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine,
8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.

In this general review article on the treatment of patients with psoriatic
arthritis with magnetic fields, the authors state that an alternating
low-frequency magnetic field (30-40 mT) from such generators as “Polius-1?
and “Polius-101? improves the clinical state of afflicted joints.
Such treatments are normally carried out for 30 minutes per day over a
period of 15 to 20 days.V.D.
Grigor’eva, et al., “Therapeutic Use of Physical Factors in
Complex Therapy of Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis,” Vopr Kurortol
Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (6), 1995, p. 48-51

This research studied the effects of magnetolaser therapy alone or combined
with conventional drugs in rheumatoid arthritis patients. This treatment
utilized a AMLT-01 device for magnetolaser therapy and consisted of 14
days with 6 minute exposures daily. An obvious improvement was seen after
3 days of treatment, with greater improvement by patients suffering from
mild to moderate levels of the disease. End results computed into a 90
percent patient improvement rate.9B.Y.
Drozdovski, et al., “Use of Magnetolaser Therapy with an AMLT-01
Apparatus in Complex Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis,” Fiz Med,
4(1-2), 1994, p. 101-102

This study on 7 to 14 year old juveniles suffering from rheumatoid arthritis
examined effects of low-frequency magnetic fields from a Polius-1 device.
Ten daily treatment exposures of 10 to 12 minutes each were conducted
on three experimental groups. The three groups showed 58, 76, 37 percent
beneficial effects from the treatment. E.A.
Shlyapok, et al., “Use of Alternating Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields
in Combination with Radon Baths for Treatment of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis,”
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, 4, 1992, p. 13-17.

Low frequency and constant magnetic fields in patients suffering from
rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthrosis was the focus of this study. Patients
with stages 1 & 2 rheumatoid arthritis as well as patients with osteoarthrosis
deformans, showed the beneficial effects from treatments. These low frequency,
constant magnetic fields were found especially beneficial to the knees,
ankles and wrists.

V.D. Grigor’eva, et al., “Therapeutic Application of Low-Frequency
and Constant Magnetic Fields in Patients with Osteoarthritis Deformans
and Rheumatoid Arthritis,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult,
4, 1980, p. 29-35.

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Blepharitis (infection
of the eyelid)

Study results indicated that using a magnetic ointment containing reduced
iron powder, with an alternating magnetic field had beneficial effects
with patients suffering from chronic blepharitis.

V.A. Machekhin, et
al., “A New Method for Treating Chronic Blepharitis Using Magnetic
Compounds and an Alternating Magnetic Field,” Vestn Oftalmol, 109(4),

July-September 1993, p. 16-18.

Bone Fractures

A group of 83 adults with ununited fractures were examined for the effects
of bone grafting and pulsed electromagnetic fields for this study. Results
showed a successful healing rate of 87 percent in the original 38 patients
treated with bone grafts and PEMF for ununited fractures with wide gaps,
malalignment, and synovial pseudarthrosis. Of the 45 patients that were
not successfully treated with PEMF and had bone grafting, when re-treated
with pulsing electromagnetic fields, achieved a 93 percent success rate.

C.A. Bassett, et al.,
“Treatment of Therapeutically Resistant Non-unions with Bone Grafts
and Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields,” Journal of Bone Joint Surg,
64(8), October 1982, p. 1214-1220.

Examining the effects of pulsing electromagnetic fields on 125 patients
suffering from ununited fractures of the tibial diaphysis, showed a healing
success rate of 87%.

C.A. Bassett, et al.,
“Treatment of Ununited Tibial Diaphyseal Fractures with Pulsing Electromagnetic
Fields,” Journal of Bone Joint Surg, 63(4), April 1981, p. 511-523.

Results of this study showed treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields
resulted in an overall success rate of at least 75 percent in patients
suffering from tibial lesions.

M.W. Meskens, et al.,
“Treatment of Delayed Union and Nonunion of the Tibia Pulsed Electromagnetic
Fields. A Retrospective Follow-up,” Bull Hosp Jt Dis Orthop Inst,
48(2), Fall 1988, p. 170-175.

This review article makes the following observations with respect to the
use of pulsed electromagnetic fields in treating ununited fractures, failed
arthrodeses, and congenital pseudarthroses. The treatment has been shown
to be more than 90 percent effective in adult patients. In cases where
union does not occur with PEMFs alone after approximately four months,
PEMF treatment coupled with fresh bone grafts ensures a maximum failure
rate of only 1 to 1.5 percent. For those with delayed union three to four
months following fracture, PEMFs appear to be more successful than in
patients treated with other conservative methods. For more serious conditions,
including infected nonunions, multiple surgical failures, long-standing
atrophic lesions, failed knee arthrodeses after removal of infected prostheses,
and congenital pseudarthroses, PEMF treatment has exhibited success in
most patients.17

C.A. Bassett, “The
Development and Application of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) for
Ununited Fractures and Arthrodeses,” Clin Plast Surg, 12(2), April
1985, p. 259-277.

Results of this study found that 35 of 44 nonunited scaphoid fractures
6 months or older healed in a mean time of 4.3 months during pulsed electromagnetic
field treatment using external coils and a thumb spica cast.

G.K. Frykman, et al.,
“Treatment of Nonunited Scaphoid Fractures Pulsed Electromagnetic
Field and Cast,” Journal of Hand Surg, 11(3), May 1986, p. 344-349.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of pulsed
electromagnetic fields in femoral neck fracture patients undergoing conventional
therapy. PEMF treatment was started within two weeks of fracture, and
patients were instructed to make use of the electromagnetic device for
8 hours per day over a 90-day period. Results showed beneficial effects
relative to controls after 18 months of follow-up.

E. Betti, et al., “Effect of Electromagnetic Field Stimulation on
Fractures of the Femoral Neck. A Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Study,”
Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine,
8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.

Results of this double-blind study showed significant healing effects
of low-frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields in patients treated with
femoral intertrochanteric osteotomy for hip degenerative arthritis.

G. Borsalino, et al., “Electrical Stimulation of Human Femoral Intertrochanteric
Osteotomies. Double-Blind Study,” Clin Orthop, (237), December 1988,
. 256-263.

In this study, 147 patients with fractures of the tibia, femur, and humerus
who had failed to benefit from surgery-received treatment with external
skeletal fixation in situ and pulsed electromagnetic fields. Results indicated
an overall success rate of 73 percent. Femur union was seen in 81 percent
and tibia union in 75 percent.

M. Marcer, et al.,
“Results of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) in Ununited Fractures
after External Skeletal Fixation,” Clin Orthop, (190),

November 1984, . 260-265

This study examined the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic
fields (1-1000 Hz, 4 gauss) on new bone fractures of female patients.
Results led the authors to suggest that EMF treatment accelerates the
early stages of fracture healing.

O. Wahlstrom, “Stimulation of Fracture Healing with Electromagnetic
Fields of Extremely Low Frequency (EMF of ELF),” Clin Orthop, (186),
June 1984, . 293-301.

This study examined the preventive effects of low-frequency pulsing electromagnetic
fields against delayed union in rat fibular osteotomies and diaphyseal
tibia fractures in humans. Results indicated such treatment modulated
and accelerated fracture union in both groups.

A.W. Dunn & G.A.
Rush, 3d, “Electrical Stimulation in Treatment of Delayed Union and
Nonunion of Fractures and Osteotomies,” Southern Medical Journal,

77(12),December 1984, . 1530-1534.

This article discusses the cases of two children with bone malunion following
lengthening of congenitally shortened lower legs. Pulsed sinusoidal magnetic
field treatment was beneficial for both patients.

F. Rajewski &
W. Marciniak, “Use of Magnetotherapy for Treatment of Bone Malunion
in Limb Lengthening. Preliminary Report,” Chir Narzadow Ruchu Ortop
Pol, 57(1-3),

1992,. 247-249.

Results of this study showed that 13 of 15 cases of long bone nonunion
treated with pulsed electromagnetic fields in combination with Denham
external fixator united within several months.

R.B. Simonis, et al.,
“The Treatment of Non-union Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Combined
with a Denham External Fixator,” Injury, 15(4), January 1984, . 255-260.

Results of this study found electromagnetic field stimulation to be an
effective treatment for nonunion among a group of 37 French

L. Sedel, et al.,
“Acceleration of Repair of Non-unions electromagnetic Fields,”
Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot,

67(1), 1981, . 11-23.

Results of this study found treatment induced pulsing to be beneficial
in patients suffering from nonunions unresponsive to surgery.>

J.C. Mulier &
F. Spaas, “Out-patient Treatment of Surgically Resistant Non-unions
Induced Pulsing Current – Clinical Results,” Arch Orthop Trauma Surg,
97(4),

1980,.293-297.

In this interview with Dr. C. Andrew L. Bassett, a physician researching
the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields for the past 30 years at Columbia
University’s Orthopedic Research Lab, Dr. Bassett notes that approximately
10,000 of the 12,000-plus orthopedic surgeons in the U.S. have used pulsed
electromagnetic fields on at least one patient. Many such surgeons have
incorporated the therapy on a more regular basis. He estimates that a
total of at least 65,000 patients nationwide have received the treatment,
with a probable success rate of between 80 and 90 percent. Use of the
treatment has been primarily in patients suffering from nonunited fractures,
fusion failures, and pseudoarthrosis.

C.A. Bassett, “Conversations
with C. Andrew L. Bassett, M.D. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields. A Noninvasive
Therapeutic Modality for Fracture Nonunion (Interview),” Orthop.
Review,

15(12)1986 781-795.

Results of this study showed pulsed electromagnetic fields to have beneficial
healing effects in patients suffering from difficult to treat and surgically
resistant bone nonunions.

35#

This review article notes that the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields
began in 1974, and that 250,000 nonunion patients have received the treatment
since. The author argues that success rates are comparable to those of
bone grafting, and that PEMF treatment is more cost-effective and free
of side effects. The FDA approved PEMF use in 1982, although it remains
widely unused due to physician misunderstanding and lack of knowledge
concerning the treatment.

A. Bassett, “Therapeutic Uses of Electric and Magnetic Fields in
Orthopedics,& quot; in D.O. Carpenter & S. Ayrapetyan, (eds.),
Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields. Volume II: beneficial
and Harmful Effects, San Diego: Academic Press, 1994, . 13-48.

This 7-year study examined data on more than 11,000 cases of nonunions
treated with pulsed electromagnetic fields for up to 10 to 12 hours per
day. Results indicated an overall success rate of 75 percent.

A.A. Goldberg, “Computer
Analysis of Data on More than 11,000 Cases of Ununited Fracture Submitted
for Treatment with Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields,” Bioelectrical
Repair and Growth Society, Second Annual Meeting,

20-22 September 1982, Oxford, UK, . 61.

This study examined the effects of low-frequency electromagnetic fields
(1-1000 Hz) on middle-aged female patients suffering from fresh radius
fractures. Results showed significant increases in scintimetric activity
surrounding the fracture area after two weeks of EMF treatment relative
to controls.

O. Wahlstrom, “Electromagnetic
Fields Used in the Treatment of Fresh Fractures of the Radius,” Bioelectrical
Repair and Growth Society, Second Annual Meeting,

20-22 September 1982, Oxford, UK, . 26.

This study examined the effects of constant magnetic fields in patients
suffering from fractures. Results showed that magnetic exposure reduced
pain and the onset of edema shortly after trauma. Where edema was already
present, the treatment exhibited marked anti-inflammatory effects. The
strongest beneficial effects occurred in patients suffering from fractures
of the ankle joints.

Results of this study found that 10 hours per day of electromagnetic stimulation
(1.0-1.5 mV) produced complete union in 23 of 26 patients receiving the
treatment for nonjoined fractures.

A.F. Lynch & P. MacAuley, “Treatment of Bone Non-Union Electromagnetic
Therapy,” Ir Journal of Med Sci, 154(4), 1985, . 153-155.

This review article looks at the history of pulsed electromagnetic fields
as a means of bone repair. The author argues that success rates have been
either superior or equivalent to those of surgery, with PEMF free of side
effects and risk.

C.A.L. Bassett, “Historical
Overview of PEM-Assisted Bone and Tissue Healing, ” Bioelectromagnetics
Society, 10th Annual Meeting,

19-24 June 1988, Stamford, CT, . 19.

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Bronchitis

Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that
both low-frequency electromagnetic field treatment and treatment with
pulsed electromagnetic fields proved effective in patients suffering from
chronic bronchitis when coupled with standard drug therapies. Magnetic
field treatment consisted of a total of 15 15-20-minute daily exposures.

V.M. Iurlov, et al.,
“The Efficacy of the Use of Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields
in Chronic Bronchitis,” Voen Med Zh, 3,

1989, . 35-36.

Cancer

R.R. Raylman, et al., “Exposure to Strong Static Magnetic Field Slows
the Growth of Human Cancer Cells in Vitro,” Bioelectromagnetics,
17(5),

1996, . 358-363.

This study examined the effects of a rotational magnetic field on a group
of 51 breast cancer patients. Results showed a significant positive response
in 27 of them.

N.G. Bakhmutskii, et al., “The Assessment of the Efficacy of the
Effect of a Rotational Magnetic Field on the Course of the Tumor Process
in Patients with Generalized Breast Cancer,” Sov Med, (7), 1991,
. 25-27.

Results of this study indicated that exposure to a rotational magnetic
field inhibited Walker’s carcinoma tumor growth as much as 90 percent
in some cases.

N.G. Bakhmutskii,
et al., “The Growth Dynamics of Walker Carcinosarcoma During Exposure
to a Magnetic Eddy Field,” Vopr Onkol,

37(6), 1991, . 705-708.

Results of this study indicated that pulsed magnetic field stimulation
increased the incorporation of antitumor agents into cells, and thus increased
antitumor activity shifting the cell cycle to a proliferative from a nonproliferative
phase.

Y. Omote, “An Experimental Attempt to Potentiate Therapeutic Effects
of Combined Use of Pulsing Magnetic Fields and Antitumor Agents,”
Nippon Geka Gakkai Zasshi, 89(8), August 1988, .. 1155-1166.

Results of this study found that 20-30 sessions of magnetotherapy administered
preoperatively exhibited antitumor effects in patients suffering from
lung cancer.

L.S. Ogorodnikova,
et al., “Morphological Criteria of Lung Cancer Regression Under the
Effect of Magnetotherapy,” Vopr Onkol, 26(1),

1980, . 28-34.

This study examined the effects of microwave resonance therapy (MRT) in
patients suffering from various forms of cancer. Results showed that MRT
treatment prior to surgery reduced the spread of cancer-associated conditions
and reduced the risk associated with surgery in 87 percent of patients.
MRT applied postoperatively had beneficial effects in 68 percent.

D.V. Miasoedov, et al., “Experience with the Use of Microwave Resonance
Therapy as a Modifying Factor in Oncological Therapy,” Abstracts
of the First All-Union Symposium with International Participation, May
10-13, 1989, Kiev, Ukraine, .. 313-315.

Results of this study proved that the combination of weak pulsed electromagnetic
fields with antioxidant supplementation is beneficial in the treatment
of patients suffering from tongue cancer, improving speech, pain control,
and tolerance to chemotherapy.

U. Randoll & R.M.
Pangan, “The Role of Complex Biophysical-Chemical Therapies for Cancer,”

Bioelectrochem Bioenerg, 27(3), 1992, . 341-346.

Results of this controlled study indicated that treatment with a constant
magnetic field significantly improved long-term (3-year) survival time
in patients undergoing radiation therapy for cancer of the throat. Constant
magnetic field therapy consisted of the application of 300 mT for 30 minutes
to tumor and metastasizing regions immediately prior to each irradiation.

Results of this Russian study indicated that the use of whole body eddy
magnetic fields, coupled with more conventional cancer therapies (including
magnetotherapy) is effective in the treatment of patients suffering from
a variety of different malignancies.

V. Smirnova, “Anti-Tumorigenic
Action of an Eddy Magnetic Field,”

Vrach, 2, 1994, . 25-26

This article reports on the case of a 48-year-old-woman with breast cancer
who was treated successfully with magnetotherapy. Infiltration showed
a marked decrease following 30 whole body exposures to an eddy magnetic
field for 60 minutes. One metastatic node disappeared while the size of
others was reduced following 60 such exposures. A total regression of
tumor and metastases was seen following the completion of a course of
110 exposures.

N.G. Bakhmutskii, et al., “A Case of Successful Treatment of a Patient
with Breast Cancer Using a Rotating Electromagnetic Field,” Soviet
Medicine, 8, 1991, . 86-87.

This study examined the effects of whole body magnetic fields (16.5-35
G, 50-165 Hz) on patients suffering from different forms of cancer. Treatment
consisted of 15 cycles, each 1-20 minutes in duration, and was coupled
with more traditional cancer therapies. Results showed that the magnetotherapy
had overall beneficial effects, particularly with respect to improved
immune status and postoperative recovery.

V.A. Lubennikov, et
al., “First Experience in Using a Whole-Body Magnetic Field Exposure
in Treating Cancer Patients,”

Vopr Onkol, 41(2), 1995, . 140-141. Back
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Heart Disease

Results of this study found that the addition of magnetotherapy to the
treatment of patients suffering from ischemic heart disease and osteochondrosis
led to clinical improvements.

I. Rodin, et al., “Use of Low-Intensity Eddy Magnetic Field in the
Treatment of Patients with Skin Lymphomas,” Voen Med Zh, 317(12),
1996, . 32-34.

Results of this study involving 23 parasystolic children found that low-frequency
magnetic field exposure improved humoral and cellular processes involved
in the regulation of cardiac rhythm.

M.A. Dudchenko, et
al., “The Effect of Combined Treatment with the Use of Magnetotherapy
on the Systemic Hemodynamics of Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and
Spinal Osteochondrosis,”

Lik Sprava, (5), May 1992, . 40-43.

The authors of this study report on their development of a polymagnetic
system called Avrora-MK-01 used to administer impulse magnetic fields
to diseases of the leg vessels. Results indicated positive effects on
peripheral capillaries in 75-82 percent of patients receiving the treatment
at a pre-gangrene stage.

E.M. Vasil’eva,
et al., “The Effect of a Low-frequency Magnetic Field on Erythrocyte
Membrane Function and on the Prostanoid Level in the Blood Plasma of Children
with Parasystolic Arrhythmia,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult,
(2),

March-April 1994, . 18-20.

Results of this study showed exposure to low-frequency alternating magnetic
fields had beneficial effects in children with primary arterial hypertension,
as seen in the attenuation of sympathetic and vagotonic symptoms.

Y.B. Kirillov, et al., “Magnetotherapy in Obliterating Vascular Diseases
of the Lower Extremities,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult,
(3), May-June 1992, . 14-17.

This study demonstrated that traveling pulsed magnetic field and magnetic
laser treatment produced beneficial effects in patients suffering from
the initial stages of essential hypertension.

V.S. Zadionchenko,
et al., “Prognostic Criteria of the Efficacy of Magnetic and Magnetic-laser
Therapy in Patients with the Initial Stages of Hypertension,” Vopr
Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (1),

January-February 1997, . 8-11.

In this article, the authors propose a new approach to treating atherosclerosis
through the alteration of biophysical properties both intracellularly
and extracellularly. Citing their own preliminary data, they suggest atherosclerotic
lesions might be selectively resolved without harming normal blood vessels
allowing the lesions to take up the magnetically excitable submicron particles
and then applying an external alternating electromagnetic field.

R.T. Gordon &
D. Gordon, “Selective Resolution of Plaques and Treatment of Atherosclerosis
Biophysical Alteration of “Cellular” and “Intracellular”
Properties,” Medical Hypotheses, 7(2),

February 1981, . 217-229.

This study examined the effects of constant MKM2-1 magnets on essential
hypertension patients. Results indicated the treatment decreased arterial
pressure in stage II patients, with magnetotherapy being shown to produce
beneficial effects on the central hemodynamics and microcirculation.

S.G. Ivanov, et al.,
“The Magnetotherapy of Hypertension Patients,” Ter Arkh, 62(9),

1990, . 71-74.

Results from several recent studies conducted the author are reviewed.
Conclusions are that pulsed electromagnetic fields exhibit protective
effects against necrosis from acute ischemia in rats, cerebral infarcts
in rabbits, and myocardium infarcts in rats.

R. Cadossi, “Protective
Effect of Electromagnetic Field Exposure on Acute Soft Tissue Ischaemic
Injury,” Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology
and Medicine,

8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.

This study examined the effects of extremely high frequency electromagnetic
radiation (EHF EMR) in 93 patients suffering ischemic heart disease. EHF
treatment consisted of 10 to 15 exposures of the lower end of the sternum
from a ‘Yav’-1-7,1 device. Treatment was performed five times
weekly for a total of 30 minutes per day, with drug therapy being maintained
during this period. Positive results tended to occur after 5 to 6 treatment
sessions, with a good or satisfactory response being reported in 82 of
93 patients, and lasting as long as 11 months after hospital release.

I.E. Ganelina, et al., “Electromagnetic Radiation of Extremely High
Frequencies in Complex Therapy for Severe Stenocardia,” Millimetrovie
Volni v Biologii I Meditcine, (4), 1994, . 17-21.

This review article concerning the clinical application of electromagnetic
fields notes that microwave therapy has been shown to improve local circulation
and vascular tone, increase the volume of functional capillaries, lower
hypertension, stimulate protein and carbohydrate metabolism, stimulate
the pituitary-adrenal system, produce anti-inflammatory effects, and improve
digestive organ function. Studies have shown decimeter wave therapy capable
of stimulating the secretory function of the stomach, as well as blood
circulation, respiratory function, and the immune system. Side effects
have been reported in both human and animal studies.

V.V. Orzeshkovskii,
et al., “Clinical Application of Electromagnetic Fields,” in
I.G. Akoevs & V.V. Tiazhelov, (eds.), Topics of Experimental and Applied
Bioelectromagnetics. A Collection of Research Papers, Puschcino, USSR,
USSR Academy of Sciences, Biological Sciences Research Center,

1983, . 139-147.

In this study, 30 myocardial infarction patients received millimeter-wave
(MW) therapy in the form of 10 exposures of 30 minutes per day, with a
2-day interruption after the fifth exposure. Patients continued conventional
drug treatment during the MW therapy period. Better results were seen
in those patients exposed to the MW therapy relative to an equal number
of patients receiving conventional treatment only.

N.N. Naumcheva, “Effect of Millimeter Waves on Ischemic Heart Disease
Patients,” Millimetrovie Volni v Biologii I Meditcine, (3), 1994,
. 62-67.

This study examined the effects of millimeter wave therapy in approximately
450 patients suffering from a variety of diseases, including those of
the musculoskeletal, digestive, pulmonary, and nervous systems. Treatment
consisted of 25-30 minutes per day using the “Porog-1? apparatus
and generally lasted for a period of up to 10 days. Results showed positive
effects in over 87 percent of the patients.

A.P. Dovganiuk &
A.A. Minenkov, “The Use of Physical Factors in Treating Chronic Arterial
Insufficiency of the Lower Limbs,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz
Kult, (5),

1996, . 7-9.

Results of this study found that the use of magnetophore therapy (constant
magnets applied to adrenal regions 10 hours per day for 15 days) significantly
improved symptoms associated with hypertension in about 35 percent of
patients studied, with mild improvement seen in 30 percent, and no improvement
in 35 percent. Patients receiving decimeter-band waves (460 MHz, field
intensity of 35-45 W, for 10-15 minutes per day for a total of 15 days)
experienced similar results.

V.V. Orzheshovski, et al., “Efficacy of Decimeter-Band Waves and
Magnetophore Therapy in Patients with Hypertension,” Vrach Delo,
(1), 1982, . 65-67.

Results of this placebo-controlled study demonstrated a 76-percent effectiveness
rate for running impulse magnetic field therapy in a group of arterial
hypertensive patients. Treatment consisted of two 25-minute exposures
per day over a period of 10-20 total exposures, at frequencies of 10 or
100 Hz and magnetic field intensity of 3 or 10 mT.

L.L.Orlov, et al., ” Indications for Using a New Magnetotherapeutic
Method in Arterial Hypertension,” Soviet Medicine, (8), 1991, . 23-24.

This study examined the efficacy of the reinfusion of autologous blood
following magnetic field exposure in hypertensive patients. Positive effects
were found in 92 percent of patients receiving the treatment.

I.G. Alizade, et al.,
“Magnetic Treatment of Autologous Blood in the Combined Therapy of
Hypertensive Patients,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (1),

1994, . 32-33

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of magnetotherapy
in patients suffering from first-or second-stage hypertension. A magnetic
field of 50 Hz, 15-25 mT was applied to acupuncture points He-Gu and Shen’-Men
for 15-20 seconds per day for a total of 9-10 days. Results: The treatment
improved headaches in 88 percent of patients, dizziness in 89 percent,
and irritability in 88 percent. In general, 95 percent of hypertensive
patients experienced beneficial effects from the treatment, and the morbidity
rate decreased twofold following one course extended over a period of
5-6 months.

E.V. Rolovlev, “Treatment
of Essential Hypertension Patients an Alternating Magnetic Field Puncture,”
All-Union Symposium: Laser and Magnetic Therapy in Experimental and Clinical
Studies,

June 16-18, 1993, Obninsk, Kaluga Region, Russia, . 221-223.

This placebo-controlled study examined the effects of constant and of
running magnetic fields in patients suffering from stage II hypertension.
Results found that constant magnetic fields exhibited benefits in 68 percent
of patients treated, and running magnetic fields were helpful in 78 percent.
Only 30 percent of controls showed improvement. Constant magnetic field
treatment consisted of constant magnets applied to the inner side of the
wrist on each hand for 35-40 minutes daily over a period of 7-10 days.
Running magnetic field treatment involved the use of a “Alimp-1?
apparatus for 20 minutes per day for a total of 12-15 days.

S.G. Ivanov, et al.,
“Use of Magnetic Fields in the Treatment of Hypertensive Disease,
” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (3),

1993, . 67-69.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that magnetotherapy
was effective in the treatment of symptoms associated with stage II hypertension,
such as headache, dizziness, and cardiodynia. The therapy consisted of
permanent circular magnets (16 mT) applied to the inner forearm for 30-45
minutes per day over a period of 10 sessions.

S.G. Ivanov, “The
Comparative Efficacy of Nondrug and Drug Methods of Treating Hypertension,
” Ter Arkh, 65(1),

1993, . 44-49.

This controlled study examined the effects of magnetotherapy in patients
suffering from neurocirculatory hypotension (low blood pressure) or hypertension
(high blood pressure). Treatment consisted of a running pulsed magnetic
field generated an “ALIMP” device (0.5 mT, 300 Hz) administered
for 20 minutes per day over a course of 10 days. Patients suffering from
hypotension did not benefit significantly from the magnetotherapy. Hypertension
patients, however, showed a marked improvement with respect to symptoms
including headache, chest pain, extremity numbness, abnormal systolic
and diastolic blood pressure, and work capacity.

L.L. Orlov, et al.,
“Effect of a Running Pulse Magnetic Field on Some Humoral Indices
and Physical Capacity in Patients with Neurocirculatory Hypo- and Hypertension,”
Biofizika, 41(4),

1996, . 944-948.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that low-frequency,
low-intensity electrostatic fields (40-62 Hz) administered for 12-14 minutes
per day helped normalize blood pressure in patients suffering from ertension.

T.A. Kniazeva, “The
Efficacy of Low-Intensity Exposures in Hypertension,” Vopr Kurortol
Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, 1,

1994, . 8-9.

This study examined the effects of low-frequency alternating magnetic
fields in patients suffering from arteriosclerosis or osteoarthrosis deformans.
Treatment involved 10-15 minute daily leg exposures over a total of 15
days. Results showed the treatment to be effective in 80 percent of arteriosclerosis
patients and 70 percent of those with osteoarthrosis formans.

A.G. Kakulia, “The
Use of Sonic Band Magnetic Fields in Various Diseases,” Vopr Kurortol
Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, 3,

1982, . 18-21.

This study examined the effects of low-frequency magnetic fields (25 mT)
in patients suffering atherosclerotic encephalopathy. Treatment involved
10-15 minute daily exposures over a total of 10-15 applications. Results
showed clinical improvements with respect to chest pain, vertigo, headache,
and other symptoms.

S.S. Gabrielian, et
al., “Use of Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields in the Treatment of Patients
with Atherosclerotic Encephalopathy,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech
Fiz Kult, 3,1987, . 36-39. Back
to top

Chronic Venous
Insufficiency

This study examined the effects of alternating magnetic fields (15-20
minutes per day over a period of 20 days) in patients suffering from chronic
venous insufficiency, varicose veins, and trophic shin ulcers. Results
showed good effects in 236 of the 271 patients receiving the treatment.
Thirty-four patients reported satisfactory effects. Only one patient experienced
no effects.

E.I. Pasynkov, et
al., “Therapeutic Use of Alternating Magnetic Field in the Treatment
of Patients with Chronic Diseases of the Veins of the Lower Limbs,”
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, 5,

1976, . 16-19.

This review article notes that magnetotherapy in a variety of forms has
been successfully used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency
and is a commonly used physical therapy for the condition.

A.P. Dovganiuk, “Balneologic and Physical Therapy of Chronic Venous
Insufficiency of Extremities,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult,
2, 1995, . 48-49.

This study examined the effects of running impulse magnetic fields in
patients suffering from vessel obliteration diseases of the legs. Treatment
consisted of 15-20 whole body exposures (0.5-5 mT, 1-2 Hz) lasting 15-20
minutes each. Results showed treatment led to a significant reduction
in the number of patients experiencing leg pain while at rest. Among patients
previously unable to walk a 500-m distance, 52 percent were able to complete
the distance following treatment. Circulation improved in 75-82 percent
of patients.

Y.B. Kirillov, et al., “Magnetotherapy for Obliterative Disease of
the Vessels of the Legs,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, 3,
1992, .. 14-17.

Dental Problems

This controlled study examined the effects of adjunctive Diapulse electromagnetic
therapy on oral surgery recovery. Patients received the therapy once per
day beginning between 3 to 5 days prior to oral surgery. Therapy was maintained
until the point of hospital release. Results found the therapy produced
significant healing relative to controls, which received conventional
treatment only.

L.C. Rhodes, “The
Adjunctive Utilization of Diapulse Therapy Pulsed High Peak Power Electromagnetic
Energy) in Accelerating Tissue Healing in Oral Surgery,” Q National
Dental Association, 40(1),

1981, . 4-11

This study found that patients suffering from various oral diseases experienced
more rapid healing when treated with both conventional therapies and 30
minutes per day of pulsed electromagnetic fields (5 mT, 30 Hz), as opposed
to conventional therapies alone.

V. Hillier-Kolarov
& N. Pekaric-Nadj, “PEMF Therapy as an Additional Therapy for
Oral deseases,”European Bioelectromagnetics Association, 1st Congress,

23-25 January 1992, Brussels, Belgium. Back
to top

Depression

This review article examined the literature concerning the use of transcranial
magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression. Results showed the
high-frequency, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment
to be an effective, side-effect free therapy for depression that may hold
promise for treating related psychiatric disorders as well.

M.T. Kirkcaldie, et al., Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as Therapy
for Depression and Other Disorders,” Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 31(2),
April 1997, . 264-272.

Noting that there is good reason to believe the pineal gland is a magnetosensitive
system and that application of magnetic fields in experimental animals
has a similar effect to that of acute exposure to light with respect to
melatonin secretion, the authors propose that magnetic treatment could
be a beneficial new therapy for winter depression in humans.

R. Sandyk, et al.,
“Magnetic Felds and Seasonality of Affective Illness: Implications
for Therapy,” International Journal of Neurosci, 58(3-4),

June 1991, . 261-267.

This review article notes that transcranial magnetic stimulation has been
shown to elicit antidepressant effects, electically stimulating deep regions
of the brain.

C. Haag, et al., “Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. A Diagnostic
Means from Neurology as Therapy in Psychiatry?” Nervenarzt, 68(3),
March 1997, . 274-278.

In this theoretical paper, the author argues that deep, low-rate transcranial
magnetic stimulation can produce therapeutic effects equivalent to those
of electroconvulsive therapy but without the dangerous side effects.

T. Zyss, “Will
Electroconvulsive Therapy Induce Seizures: Magnetic Brain Stimulation
as Hypothesis of a New Psychiatric Therapy,” Psychiatr Pol, 26(6),

November-December 1992, . 531-541.

This study examined the effects of millimeter wave (MW) therapy as a supplemental
treatment in patients suffering from various types of depression. MW therapy
involved the use of a “Yav’-1? apparatus (5.6 mm wavelength,
53 GHz), and consisted of up to 60 minutes of exposure per day, 2 to 3
times per week, for a total of as many as 15 exposures. Results showed
that combined MW/conventional treatment produced a complete recovery in
over 50 percent of cases studied, a significant improvement in 41 percent,
and some improvement in 8 percent. Recovery rates among controls (conventional
treatment only) were 4, 48, and 41 percent, respectively.

G.V. Morozov, et al.,
“Treatment of Neurotic Depression with a Help of Extremely High Frequency
Electromagnetic Radiation,” Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova,
96(6),

1996, . 28-31.

Results of this study led researchers to conclude that patients suffering
from major depression experienced a significant reduction of depressive
symptoms following treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation coupled
with standard medication relative to patients taking the medicine. This
was true after just three TMS treatments.

Conca, et al., “Transcranial
Magnetic Stimulation: A Novel Antidepressive Strategy?” Neuropsychobiology,
34(4),

1996, . 204-207. Back
to top

Dermatitis

This study examined the effects of conventional treatments combined with
millimeter wave (MW) therapy (54- to 70-GHz frequency, 8-15 daily exposures
of 15-30 minutes each) on patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Results
indicated that the MW therapy was well-tolerated all patients, with the
rash generally regressing after 7-8 exposures. Marked recovery was seen
among 78 percent of patients receiving the combination treatments. Two-year
follow-up showed a 23-percent relapse rate among combination patients,
compared to 54 percent among ontrols.

V.P. Adaskevich, “Effectiveness of the Use of Millimeter-Range Electromagnetic
Radiation in Complex Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis Patients,” Millimetrovie
Volni v Biologii I Meditcine, (3), 1994, . 78-81

Diabetes

In this study, 320 diabetics received impulsed magnetic field treatment
while 100 diabetics (controls) received conservative therapy alone. Results
showed beneficial effects with respect to vascular complications in 74
percent of the patients receiving magnetotherapy combined with conservative
methods, compared to a 28-percent effectiveness rate among controls.

I.B. Kirillovm, et al., “Magentotherapy in the Comprehensive Treatment
of Vascular Complications of Diabetes Mellitus,” Klin Med, 74(5),
1996, . 39-41.

This study involving 72 diabetics with purulent wounds found that magnetic
fields aided healing significantly.

R.A. Kuliev &
R.F. Babaev, “A Magnetic Field in the Combined Treatment of Suppurative
Wounds in Diabetes Mellitus,” Vestn Khir Im I I Grek, 148(1),

January 1992, . 33-36.

Diseases of the
Larynx

Results of this study found that alternative magnetic field of sound frequency
proved to be an effective treatment in patients suffering from acute inflammatory
diseases of the larynx.D.I.
Tarasov, et al., “Effectiveness of Local Magnetic Field of the Acoustic
Frequency in the Treatment of Patients with Acute Inflammatory Diseases
of the Larynx,” Vestn Otorinolaringol, (6),November-December 1995,
. 11-15. Back to top

Duchenne-Erb Disease

This study examined the effects of electromagnetic fields in the treatment
of 5-year-old children suffering from Duchenne-Erb disease. Children were
exposed to either UHF or DMW therapy for 8-12 minutes per day on alternating
days over a period of approximately 10 days. Following the electromagnetic
fields course, children received mud applications on the collar area and
injured extremity. Results showed that treatment decreased contractures
in shoulder and elbow joints, increased mobility and muscle strength,
and improved general function of the arm.

A.D. Burigina, et al., “Electromagnetic Waves in Complex Therapy
of Children with Birth Trauma: Effects of Ultra-High-Frequency Electric
Fields on Central Hemodynamics and the Shoulder Plexus,” Vopr Kurortol
Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (4),1992, 35-38.

Endometriosis

This study found that a combined treatment consisting of magnetic-infrared-laser
therapy (10-15 min/day ever other day over a period of 10-14 exposures,
then repeated in 2-3 months) and conventional drug therapy proved highly
effective in women suffering from endometriosis.

M. Damirov, et al., “Magnetic-Infared-Laser Therapeutic Apparatus
(MILTA) in Treatment of Patients with Endometriosis,” Vrach, 12,
1994, . 17-19.

Endometritis

Results of this study found that the administration of constant magnetic
field in combination with other treatment modalities led to significant
beneficial effects in patients suffering from acute endometritis following
abortion.

V.M. Strugatskii, et al., “A Permanent Magnetic Field in the Combined
Treatment of Acute Endometritis After an Artificial Abortion,” Vopr
Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (6), November-December 1996, . 21-24.Back
to top

Epilepsy

This article reports on the cases of three patients with partial seizures
who received treatment with external artificial magnetic fields of low
intensity. Such treatment led to a significant attenuation of seizure
frequency over a 10-14-month period.

P.A. Anninos, et al.,
“Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Partial Seizures,”
International Journal of Neurosci, 60(3-4),

October 1991, . 141-171.

Experimental results indicated that the administration of modulated electromagnetic
fields of 2-30 Hz suppressed epilepsy in rats.

G.D. Antimonii &
R.A. Salamov, “Action of a Modulated Electromagnetic Field on Experimentally
Induced Epileptiform Brain Activity in Rats,” Biull Eksp Biol Med,
89(2),

February 1980, .

This review article cites one study in particular in which results showed
that pretreatment with 30 minutes of exposure to a 75-mT pole strength,
DC-powered magnetic field significantly prevented experimentally induced
seizures in mice.

M.J. McLean, et al., “Therapeutic Efficacy of a Static Magnetic Device
in Three Animal Seizure Models: Summary of Experience,” Second World
Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June
1997, Bologna, Italy.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of 2-hour
exposure to weak magnetic fields (0.2-0.7 G, irregularly oscillating 0.026-0.067
Hz) produced 3 pairs of orthogonal Helmholtz coils on pain perception
in healthy subjects. Results showed that magnetic treatment significantly
reduced the perception of pain.

F. Sartucci, et al., “Human Exposure to Oscillating Magnetic Fields
Produces Changes in Pain Perception and Pain-Related Somatosensory Evoked
Potentials,” Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism
in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.

This article reports on the case of a severe epileptic who experienced
a significant lessening of behavior disturbances and seizure frequency
following treatment with low-frequency, external artificial magnetic fields.

R. Sandyk & P.A. Anninos, “Magnetic Fields Alter the Circadian
Periodicity of Seizures,” International Journal of Neurosci, 63(3-4),
April 1992, . 265-274.

Low-frequency, external artificial magnetic field treatment was shown
to significantly reduce seizures in four adult epileptic cases.

R. Sandyk & P.A.
Anninos, “Attenuation of Epilepsy with Application of External Magnetic
Fields: A Case Report,” International Journal of Neurosci, 66(1-2),
September 1992, . 75-85. Back
to top

Gastroduodenitis

Results of this study indicated that treatment with decimeter-band electromagnetic
fields improved motor function of the stomach and reduced dyspepsia and
pain in children suffering from chronic gastroduodenitis. Treatment made
use of the “Romashka” apparatus (a cylinder applicator, 100
mm in diameter, power of 6-8 W) applied to the gastroduodenal region,
and consisted of 6-12 minute exposures every other day for a total of
8-12 exposures.

L.M. Petrukhina, et
al., “Effect of a Decimeter Wave Electromagnetic Fields on the Motor
Function of the Stomach in Children with Strong Gastroduodenitis,”
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (1),

1987, . 54-56.

This controlled study examined the effects of sinusoidally modulated currents
(100 Hz) coupled with conventional therapy in children suffering from
chronic gastroduodenitis. Children received 8-10 exposures lasting between
6 and 10 minutes. Results showed that the treatment reduced inflammation
in 72 percent of patients relative to just a 45-percent rate among controls.
About 77 percent of treatment patients experienced elimination of gastro-esophageal
and duodeno-gastral refluxes, compared to 29 percent of controls.

O.V. Bukanovich, et al., “Sinusoidally-Modulated Currents in the
Therapy of Chronic Gastroduodenitis in Children,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter
Lech Fiz Kult, 2, 1996, . 22-26.

General

Results of this study indicated that the optimal frequency of pulsed magnetic
fields ranges between 10.0 and 25.0 Hz in the treatment of chronic inflammatory
conditions of the locomotor apparatus, ischemia of the blood vessels of
the lower extremities, dyspeptic syndrome, lactation mastitis, and other
diseases. Treatment proved best when the therapeutic cycle was repeated
after a 2-3 month period.

L. Navratil, et al.,
“Possible Therapeutic Applications of Pulsed Magnetic Fields,”
Cas Lek Cesk, 132(19),

October 11, 1993, . 590-594.

This article reviews the use of magnetotherapy in Czechoslovakia. Noting
that this modality has been used for more than a decade, the author states
that magnetotherapy has been shown to be effective in treating rheumatic
diseases, sinusitis, enuresis, and ischemic disorders of the lower extremities.
Positive findings have also been shown with respect to multiple sclerosis
and degenerative diseases of the retina.

J. Jerabek, “Pulsed Magnetotherapy in Czechoslovakia–A Review,”
Rev Environ Health, 10(2), April-June 1994, . 127-134.

This review article notes that pulse-type electromagnetic fields (PEMF)
are the most frequently used type of electromagnetic therapy. Another
form is pulsed radio frequency; PRF therapy generally includes daily sessions
of 30-minute exposure and is primarily used in cases of pain and edema,
with results being apparent quickly when the therapy is effective. PEMF
treatment is most successful when used in bone healing, with results occurring
over a longer period of time.

A.A. Pilla, “State of the Art in Electromagnetic Therapeutics: Soft
Tissue Applications,” Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism
in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.

This study examined the effects of electromagnetic fields administered
over a period of 10 days on 354 patients suffering from various orthopedic
conditions. Results showed the effects to be positive, with the greatest
benefit experienced among patients with acute lesions.

G. Annaratone, et al., “Magnetotherapy in Clinical and Ambulatory
Practice,” Minerva Med, 74(14-15), April 7, 1983, . 823-833.

Noting that beneficial effects of low-energy, time-varying magnetic fields
have been shown since the early 1970s, this review article cites studies
pointing to its success in the treatment of a wide range of conditions.
The best results for this modality obtained in the area of bone healing.

C.A. Bassett, “Fundamental and Practical Aspects of Therapeutic Uses
of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs), ” Crit Rev Biomed Eng,
17(5), 1989, . 451-529.

This review article claims that over a quarter of a million patients worldwide
with chronically ununited fractures have experienced beneficial results
from treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields. In addition, the author
cites studies pointing to the treatment’s efficacy with respect to
other conditions such as nerve regeneration; wound healing, graft behavior,
diabetes, heart attack, and stroke.

C.A. Bassett, “Beneficial Effects of Electromagnetic Fields,”
Journal of Cell Biochem, 51(4), April 1993, p. 387-393.

This review article notes that low-intensity millimeter waves have been
used for treating a wide variety of medical conditions in the former Soviet
Union since 1977, with more than a million patients treated and more than
a thousand treatment centers in existence. This therapy has been approved
for widespread use the Russian Ministry of Health, and over 300 scientific
publications have described its effects. A typical course of treatment
involves 10-15 daily exposures ranging from 15 to 60 minutes each.

A.G. Pakhomov, “Millimeter
Wave Medicine in Russia: A Review of Literature,” Infrared Lasers
and Millimeter Waves Workshop: The Links Between Microwaves and Laser
Optics,

January 21-22, 1997, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas.

This study concluded that the use of millimeter wave (MW) therapy was
effective in the treatment of both children and adults suffering from
a variety of orthopedic diseases, including osteochondrosis, arthrosis,
infantile cerebral paralysis, Perthes’ disease, and inborn femur
dislocation. MW therapy made use of the G4-142 apparatus (55-65 GHz).
Exposure was for 15-30 minutes in children or 30-60 minutes in adults
over a period of 10-12 total exposures.

S.D. Schvchenko, et
al., “Experience with Treating Some Orthopedic Diseases with Millimeter
Range Radiation of Nonthermal Intensity,” Millimeter Waves in Medicine
and Biology. Digest of Papers of the 11th Russian Symposium with International
Participation,

April 21-24, 1997, Zvenigorod, Moscow Region, Russia, p. 33-35. 139. A.M.

This research examined the effects of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic
fields on patients suffering from a wide range of disorders, including
musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, circulatory diseases,
traumatic disorders, gastroenterological problems, and stress-related
morbidity. Treatment made use of the Rhumart apparatus, which produced
waveforms with peak amplitudes up to 30 G. Results, based on the patients’
own subjective ratings, indicated the treatment to be beneficial across
most conditions, with the strongest effects seen in those suffering from
musculoskeletal and traumatic disorders.

Begue-Simon &
R.A. Drolet, “Clinical Assessment of the Rhumart System based on
the Use of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields with Low Frequency,” International
Journal of Rehabil Research, 16(4),

1993, p. 323-327.

This review article summarizes findings presented at the Third Workshop
on the use of low-intensity millimeter waves in medicine, held in Zvenigorod,
Moscow Region, Russia. Such findings pointed to the efficacy of MW therapy
with respect to alcoholism and its associated symptoms, gastric and duodenal
ulcers, psoriasis, chronic furunculosis, and cardiovascular diseases.

Y.L. Arzumanov, “An Overview of the Third Workshop ‘Use of Millimeter
Waves in Medicine,’” Millimetrovie Volni v Biologii i Meditcine,
(3), 1994, p. 104-107.

This study examined the effects of magnetotherapy on patients suffering
from a variety of eye and brain vascular disorders. Treatment made use
of the “Polius-1? apparatus (50 Hz), with most patients receiving
a course of 15-20 daily exposures. Results showed overall general improvements
in 95 percent of patients with eye diseases.

N. Gilinskaya &
L.V. Zobina, “Magnetic Field Application for the Treatment of Vascular
Diseases of the Brain and Eyes,” in Y.A. Kholodov & N.N. Lebedeva
(eds.), Problems of Electromagnetic Neurobiology, Moscow, Nauka,

1988, p. 94-98.

This review article notes that low-frequency electromagnetic therapy has
been used for a variety of purposes. Those specifically identified the
author include cell growth promotion, pain reduction, improved blood circulation,
bone repair, increased wound healing, sedative effects, enhanced sleep,
and arthritic relief.

R.A. Drolet, “Rhumart
Therapy: A Non-invasive Cell Regeneration Ion and Anti-Inflammatory Therapy
Using LF-EM Fields,” Bioelectromagnetics Society, 4th Annual Meeting,

28 June-2 July 1982, Los Angeles, CA, p. 45.

This review article notes that treatment with an “Infita” apparatus,
used to deliver low-frequency magnetic fields, has been shown to improve
general hemodynamics and microcirculation in addition to exhibiting anti-inflammatory,
sedative, and analgesic effects in Olympic-level Russian athletes.

A. Zaslavskii, et
al., “A Low-frequency Impulse Apparatus for Physical Therapy ‘Infita’,”
Med Tehk, 5,

1994, p. 39-41.

This review article cites studies pointing to the efficacy of low-frequency
magnetic fields in the treatment of a wide variety of conditions, including
burns, arthritis, fractures, arterial aneurysms, PMS, phantom pain, tuberculosis,
ischemic heart disease, hypertension, bronchial asthma, and ulcerated
varicose veins, among others.

V.M. Bogoliubov &
L.A. Skurikhina, “Therapeutic Application of Constant and Low-Frequency
Magnetic Fields,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (2),

1979, p. 65-72.

This study examined the effects of extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields
(TAMMAT device) in the treatment of a group of 650 patients suffering
from a host of various diseases. Treatment consisted 15-25 minute daily
exposures 5 days per week over a total of 20-25 days. Most patients experienced
improvements after 2-3 exposures. Marked improvements were seen with respect
to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and immune-enhancing effects.

V.I. Kovalchuk, et
al., “Use of Extremely-Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields in Clinical
Practice,” Fizicheskaia Meditzina, 4(1-2),

1994, p. 87

This article reports on the efficacy of a Russian electromagnetic stimulation
apparatus termed “Cascade.” The authors state that data from
508 patients suffering from various ailments who were treated with the
device indicate it to be anywhere from 75 to 100 percent effective. Examples
of conditions in which the device was used include stubborn fractures,
post-traumatic contractures, crush syndrome, and Perthes’ disease.

S.A. Schastnyi, et al., “A Contact-Free, Biologically Adequate Electromagnetic
Stimulation of Repair Regeneration of Osseous, Cartilaginous, and Muscular
Tissues in Children,” Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk, (3), 1994, p. 38-42.

This review article on the use of pulsed magnetotherapy in Czechoslovakia
points to its efficacy across a variety of conditions, including joint
problems, enuresis, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and carpal tunnel syndrome.

J. Jerabek, “Pulsed
Magnetotherapy in Czechoslovakia: A Review,” First World Congress
for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 14-19 June 1992,
Lake Buena Vista, FL, p. 81. Back
to top

Glaucoma

In this study, patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with compensated
intraocular pressure were administered magnetotherapy using an ATOS device
with 33-mT magnetic field induction. The procedure was administered to
a patient in a sitting posture with a magnetic inductor held before the
eye. Sessions lasted 10 minutes and each course included 10 sessions.
Following 4-5 months of therapy, results showed improved vision acuity
0.16 diopters, on an average of 29 out of 30 eyes with vision acuity below
1.0.

Bisvas, et al., “Possibilities
of Magnetotherapy in Stabilization of Visual Function in Patients with
Glaucoma,” Vestn Oftalmol, 112(1),

Jauary-March 1996, p. 6-8.

Hair
Loss

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of pulsed
electromagnetic fields on hair loss in men suffering from male pattern
baldness. PEMF exposures were administered to the head for 12 minutes
and were given weekly or twice weekly over a period of 36 weeks. Results
found the PEMF treatment both prevented hair loss and promoted regrowth
without side effects.

W.S. Maddin, et al., “The Biological Effects of a Pulsed Electrostatic
with Specific Reference to Hair: Electrotrichogenesis,” International
Journal of Dermatology, 29(6), 1990, p. 446-450. Back
to top

Headache

Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study demonstrated that
the administration of a pulsed magnetic field for less than one hour to
headache patients produced significant beneficial effects, as shown subjective
patient reports, as well as EEG activity.

O. Grunner, et al.,
“Cerebral Use of a Pulsating Magnetic Field in Neuropsychiatry Patients
with Long-term Headache,” EEG EMG Z Elektroenzephalogr Verwandte
Geb, 16(4),

December 1985, p. 227-230

This article reports on the case of an acute migraine patient who was
successfully treated with external magnetic fields.

R. Sandyk, “The
Influence of the Pineal Gland on Migraine and Cluster Headaches and Effects
of Treatment with picoTesla Magnetic Fields,” International Journal
of Neurosci, 67(1-4),

November-December 1992, p. 145-171.

This article examined the effects of millimeter wave therapy in the treatment
of 107 patients suffering from headaches of varying causes. Treatment
consisted of the Nao-Hu, Bai-Huei, and Hua-Chai acupuncture points being
exposed to 5.6- and 4.9-mm wavelengths via the use of “Yav’-1-5.6?
or “Electronka-KVCh” devices, respectively. Exposure lasted
up to 60 minutes per day over a course of 10 days. All patients experienced
positive results following 3-5 exposures. After one year, 48 percent of
patients remained free of headaches, with a significant decrease in another
41 percent.

B.M. Popov & T.A.
Al’shanskaya, “Use of Traditional and Non-traditional Methods
in the Treatment of Headache,” Millimeter Waves in Medicine and Biology.
Digest of Papers of the 11th Russian Symposium with International Participation,

April 21-24, 1997, Zvenigorod, Moscow Region, Russia, p. 68-71.

This study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (20 minutes
per day for 15 days) in the treatment of patients suffering from chronic
headaches. Results indicated the treatment to be most effective in patients
suffering from tension headaches, with 88 percent of such patients reporting
positive results. Beneficial results were also experienced patients suffering
from migraines (60 percent), cervical migraines (68 percent), and psychogenic
headaches (60 percent).

A. Prusinski, et al.,
“Pulsating Electromagnetic Field in the Therapy of Headache,”
Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium,

May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 163-166.

In this study, 90 headache patients were treated with pulsating electromagnetic
fields via large coils to the body for 20 minutes per day for a total
of 15 days. Results found the treatment to be either excellent or good
for those patients suffering from migraine, tension, and/or cervical headaches.
Patients experiencing post-traumatic or cluster headaches did not experience
such benefits.

A. Prusinksi, et al.,
“Pulsating Electromagnetic Field in the Therapy of Headache,”
Journal of Bioelectr., 7(1),

1988, p. 127-128.

Results of this study indicated that pulsating electromagnetic fields
(12 Hz and 5 mT) were an effective prophylactic treatment for patients
suffering from cervical and migraine headaches.

J. Giczi & A.
Guseo, “Treatment of Headache Pulsating Electromagnetic Field a Preliminary
Report,” Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium,

May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 74-76.

This placebo-controlled, double-blind study examined the effects of pulsed
electromagnetic fields (2-5 Hz and flux densities of 3-4 mT) on patients
suffering from migraine headaches. PEMFs were administered to the head
for 10-15 minutes per day over a period of 30 days. Results showed a mean
improvement level of 66 percent in patients receiving the treatment, compared
to just 23 percent among controls.

L. Lazar & A.
Farago, “Experiences of Patients Suffering from Migraine-Type Headache
Treated with Magnetotherapy,” Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy,
2nd Symposium,

May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 137-140. Back
to top

Hemophilia

In this study, hemophiliacs suffering from joint hemorrhage received millimeter
wave (MW) therapy at biologically active points beginning on the first
day of hospital release. Adults were treated with an “Electronica-KVCh”
device (61 GHz, 5 mW maximum power) and children were treated with a “Porog”
device, which generates low-intensity wide-band MMW noise. Exposures in
both groups lasted for 20-25 minutes per day and were extended over a
period of 10 days. Results indicated the treatment to be more effective
than conventional therapy with respect to alleviation of pain, need for
medication, and other parameters.

V.V. Aleschenko &
I.O. Pisanko, “EHF-Therapy for Hemophylic Arthropathy and Hemarthroses
of the Knee Joint,”Millimeter Waves in Medicine and Biology. Digest
of Papers of the 10th Russian Symposium with International Participation,

April 24-26, Moscow, Russia, 1995, p. 61-63. Back
to top

Hepatitis

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of millimeter
wave therapy combined with conventional methods in the treatment of viral
hepatitis in children. Making use of a “Yav’-1-5,6? or “Yav’-1-7,7?
device, MW therapy involved 14-15 exposures of, on average, 30 minutes
per day at wavelengths of either 5.6 or 7.1 mm. Results indicated the
combined treatment to be more effective than conventional treatment only,
leading to a more rapid restoration of liver function.

A.A. Shul’diakov,
et al., “Electromagnetic Radiation of Millimeter Range in Treatment
of Children with Acute Viral Hepatitis,” Millimeter Waves in Medicine
and Biology, 10th Russian Symposium with International Participation,

April 24-26, 1995, Moscow, Russia, p. 21-23.

Results of this study showed that the use of magnetic fields was effective
in treating patients suffering from viral hepatitis who had previously
not benefited from conventional drug therapies.

I.A. Il’inskii,
et al., “Experience with the Use of Glucocorticosteroids and Magnetic
Fields in the Intensive Therapy of Severe Forms of Viral Hepatitis,”
Soviet Medicine, 9,

1978, p. 72-74.

This study examined the effects of magnetotherapy in children suffering
from various forms of viral hepatitis. Magnetotherapy consisted of alternating
magnetic fields applied to the liver area daily over a total of 10-15
days. Results indicated magnetotherapy led to more rapid and trouble-free
recovery.

V.V. Krasnov &
A.I. Shilenok, “Magnetotherapy of Hepatitis A and B in Children,”
Pediatriia, 10,

1991, p. 54-57.

Herniated Disk

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of magnetotherapy
in patients following herniated disk surgery. Results showed that 52 percent
of patients receiving the treatment compared to 30 percent of controls
reported being free of symptoms at the time of hospital release.

K. Perjes, et al.,
“Effect of Magnetotherapy on Recovery After Herniated Disk Surgery,”
Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium,

May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 159-162.

Hip Problems

This double-blind study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic
fields on loosened hip prostheses. Results showed an increase of bone
density in all patients receiving PEMF treatment compared to only 60 percent
of controls. The authors argue such findings suggest PEMF elicits early
bone reconstruction, which enhances early weight bearing.

G. Gualtieri, et al.,
“The Effect Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation on Patients
Treated of Hip Revesions with Trans-Femoral Approach,” Second World
Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine,

8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.

This study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (50 Hz,
50 G) in treating aseptic loosening of total hip prostheses. PEMF therapy
consisted of 20 minutes per day for 6 days per week over a total of 20
such sessions and was begun, on average, a year and a half following the
start of loosening. Results showed PEMF to have some beneficial effects
with respect to loosened hip arthroplasties, although it was not effective
in patients suffering severe pain due to extreme loosening.

K. Konrad, “Therapy with Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in Aseptic
Loosening of Total Hip Protheses: A Prospective Study,” Clinical
Rheumatology, 15(4), 1996, p. 325-328.

Joint Disease

Results of this 11-year study involving 3014 patients found pulsed magnetic
field treatment at low frequencies and intensities to be a highly effective,
side-effect-free therapy for joint disease.

E. Riva Sanseverino,
et al., “Therapeutic Effects of Pulsed Magnetic Fields on Joint Diseases,”
Panminerva Med, 34(4), October-December 1992, p.187-196.

Kidney Problems

This review article notes that placebo-controlled studies have shown positive
results concerning the use of pulsed magnetic field therapy in the treatment
of secondary chronic pyelonephritis.

V.A. Kiyatkin, “Pulsed
Magnetic Field in Therapy of Patients with Secondary Chronic Pyelonephritis,”
Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine,

8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy. Back
to top

Lung Disease

This study examined the effects of low-frequency magnetic fields coupled
with conventional therapies in rats suffering from inflammatory lung disease.
Results showed that rats receiving the magnetic fields experienced significant
reductions in lung abscesses and associated symptoms, and similar beneficial
effects were seen among a group of 165 human patients receiving comparable
treatment.

L.V. Iashchenko, “Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields in the Combined Therapy
of Inflammatory Lung Diseases,” Probl Tuberk, 3, 1988, p. 53-56.

Lupus Erythematosus

This review article examined the data concerning impulsed magnetic fields
in the treatment of lupus erythematosus. Studies indicate that the treatment
can be beneficial due to its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects,
its positive action on microcirculation, and immunological reactivity.

I.V. Khamaganova,
et al., “The Use of a Pulsed Magnetic Field in the Treatment of Lupus
Erythematosus,” Ter Arkh, 67(10),

1995, p. 84-87.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of UHF
and microwave therapy in treating patients suffering from systemic lupus.
Twenty-six patients were given 30-35 W of microwave irradiation administered
to the adrenal region. Twenty-five patients were given 30-35 W UHF administered
bilaterally to the temporal region. The treatment regimen for both groups
included 18-20 daily sessions. A group of 11 patients were used as controls.
Results showed both treatments to be effective, with 27 percent of microwave
patients and 66 percent of UHF patients reporting total elimination of
polyarthralgia, myalgia, and painful contractures.

V.D. Sidorov & S.B. Pershin, “Immunomodulating Effect of Microwaves
and Ultrahigh Frequency Electric Field in Patients with Systemic Lupus
Erythmatosus,” Bioelectrochem Bioenerg, 30, 1993, p. 327-330.

Results of this study indicated that the bitemporal application of ultrahigh-frequency
electromagnetic fields to the hypothalamo-hypophyseal area daily over
a period of 18-20 days had beneficial effects in patients suffering from
systemic lupus erythematosus.

V.D. Sidorov, et al., “The Immunomodulating Effect of Microwaves
and of an Ultrahigh-Frequency Electrical Field in Patients with Systemic
Lupus Erythematosus,” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (4),
1991, p. 36-40.Back to
top

Multiple Sclerosis

This article reports on the case of a 55-year-old female chronic progressive
multiple sclerosis patient who received a single external application
of low magnetic fields (7.5-picotesla; 5-Hz frequency) which lasted 20
minutes. The treatment quickly led to improvements in a variety of areas,
including fatigue, sleep, vision, bladder function, movement and speech
problems, and mood.

R. Sandyk, “Rapid Normalization of Visual Evoked Potentials picoTesla
Range Magnetic Fields in Chronic Progressive Multiple Sclerosis,”
International Journal of Neurosci, 77(3-4), August 1994, p. 243-259.

This study reports on four cases of multiple sclerosis who experienced
improvements in visuospatial and visuomotor functions following treatment
with external application of low magnetic fields.

R. Sandyk, “Further Observations on the Effects of External picoTesla
Range Magnetic Fields on Visual Memory and Visuospatial Functions in Multiple
Sclerosis,” International Journal of Neurosc, 77(3-4), August 1994,
203-27

This article reports on the case of a 50-year-old female chronic progressive
multiple sclerosis patient who received a single external application
of low magnetic fields who experienced significant improvements following
the treatment.

R. Sandyk, “Successful
Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis with Magnetic Fields,” International
Journal Neurosci, 66(3-4),

October 1992, p. 237-250.

This article reports on the cases of three patients suffering from long-time
symptoms of multiple sclerosis who received treatment with extra cerebral
pulsed electromagnetic fields over a period of between 6 and 18 months.
Results showed all three patients experienced significant improvements
in cognitive functions.

R. Sandyk, “Progressive
Cognitive Improvement in Multiple Sclerosis from Treatment with Electromagnetic
Fields,” International Journal of Neurosci, 89(1-2),

January 1997, p. 39-51.

This is a report on the cases of two chronic multiple sclerosis patients
exhibiting severe speech problems. Symptoms were completely resolved following
3-4 weeks of treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields.

R. Sandyk, “Resolution
of Dysarthria in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic
Fields,” International Journal of Neurosci, 83(1-2),

November 1995, p. 81-92.

This article reports on the cases of three multiple sclerosis patients
suffering from alexia (lack of understanding of written words) who experienced
a reversal of the alexia following the start of pico tesla-range electromagnetic
field treatment.

R. Sandyk, “Reversal
of Alexia in Multiple Sclerosis Weak Electromagnetic Fields,” International
Journal of Neurosci, 83(1-2),

November 1995, p. 69-79.

This article reports on the case of a middle-aged disabled female patient
with a 19-year history of chronic relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
Within one day of receiving experimental treatment with picotesla electromagnetic
fields, the patient exhibited improvements in her condition. The patient
continued with 1-2 treatments per week over a period of 32 months. During
this time, significant improvements were seen with respect to a range
of physical symptoms, as well as cognitive functions.

R. Sandyk, “Long Term Beneficial Effects of Weak Electromagnetic
Fields in Multiple Sclerosis,” International Journal of Neurosci,
83(1-2), November 1995, p. 45-57.

The cases of three female multiple sclerosis patients exhibiting suicidal
behavior are discussed in this article. Treatment with pulsed pico tesla-level
electromagnetic fields resolved the suicidal behavior in all three patients,
an improvement that was maintained over a follow-up period of 3.5 years.

R. Sandyk, “Suicidal Behavior is Attenuated in Patients with Multiple
Sclerosis Treatment with Electromagnetic Fields,” International Journal
of Neurosci, 87(1-2), October 1996, p. 5-15.

This article reports on the case of a 36-year-old man severely disabled
with partial paralysis and lack of coordination. Three treatment sessions
per week with pulsed electromagnetic fields over a period of one year
led to a range of improvements, including improvements in gait, balance,
bowel and bladder functions, vision, mood, and sleep. No progression of
symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis was seen throughout the course
of EMF treatment.

R. Sandyk, “Treatment
with Electromagnetic Field Alters the Clinical Course of Chronic Progressive
Multiple Sclerosis–A Case Report,” International Journal of
Neurosci, 88(1-2),

November 1996, p. 75-82.

This article reports on the cases of two multiple sclerosis patients suffering
from chronic ataxia who performed poorly on human figure drawing tests
administered to measure body image perception. Treatment with extracerebral
applications of picotesla flux electromagnetic fields led to improvements
in gait and balance as well as a normalization in body image perception
as seen on a repeat of the same test each patient.

R. Sandyk, “Effect of Weak Electromagnetic Fields on Body Image Perception
in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis, ” International Journal of Neurosci,
86(1-2), July 1996, p. 79-85.

This article reports on the case of a 51-year-old female patient with
remitting-progressive multiple sclerosis who experienced a successful
reduction in carbohydrate craving believed to be associated with the exacerbation
of her condition following treatment with a series of extra cranial AC
pulsed applications of pico tesla flux intensity electromagnetic fields.

R. Sandyk, “Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields Attenuates
Carbohydrate Craving in a Patients with Multiple Sclerosis,” International
Journal of Neurosci, 86(1-2), July 1996, p. 67-77.

This article reports on the cases of three multiple sclerosis patients
suffering from a chronic progressive course of the disease who experienced
a reduction in tremors following treatment with brief external applications
of pulsed EMFs of 7.5-pT intensity.

R. Sandyk & L.C.
Dann, “Weak Electromagnetic Fields Attenuate Tremor in Multiple Sclerosis,”
International Journal of Neurosci, 79(3-4),

December 1994, p. 199-212.

This article reports on the cases of three female chronic multiple sclerosis
patients who experienced a reversal of cognitive deficits following treatment
with brief external applications of alternating pulsed electromagnetic
fields in the picotesla range of intensity.

R. Sandyk, Reversal
of Visuospatial Hemi-inattention in Patients with Chronic Progressive
Multiple Sclerosis Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields,” International
Journal of Neurosci, 79(3-4),

December 1994, p. 169-184.

This article reports on the cases of three female multiple sclerosis patients
with poor word fluency who experienced a 100-percent increase in word
output following 4-5 sessions of treatment with external applications
of extremely weak electromagnetic fields in the pico tesla range of intensity.

R. Sandyk, Improvement
in Word-fluency Performance in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Electromagnetic
Fields,” International Journal Neurosci, 79(1-2),

November 1994, p.75-90.

This article reports on the case of a 58-year-old male multiple sclerosis
patient with a 37-year history of the disease. Treatment with external
application of magnetic fields in the pico tesla range led to a speedy
improvement of neurological symptoms in the areas of walking, balance,
sensory symptoms, and bladder function. Improvements in numerous cognitive
functions were seen within 24 hours of treatment as well.

R. Sandyk & R.P.
Iacono, “Improvement PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields of Perceptual-motor
Performance and Visual Memory in a Patient with Chronic Progressive Multiple
Sclerosis,” International Journal of Neurosci, 78(1-2),

September 1994, p. 53-66.

This article reports on the case of a 36-year-old multiple sclerosis patient
who experienced immediate improvements in visuoperceptive functions following
treatment with external application of pico tesla-range magnetic fields.

R. Sandyk & R.P. Iacono, “Multiple Sclerosis: Improvement of
Visuoperceptive Functions PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields,” International
Journal of Neurosci, 74(1-4), January-February 1994, p. 177-189.

This article reports on the cases of three multiple sclerosis patients
suffering from falls due to rapid deterioration in balance and triggered
distracting external auditory stimuli. Treatment with a series of extra
cranially applied, low-frequency picotesla-range intensity electromagnetic
fields quickly resolved such symptoms associated with a loss of balance.

R. Sandyk, “Application of Weak Electromagnetic Fields Facilitates
Sensory-motor Integration in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis,” International
Journal of Neurosci, 85(1-2), March 1996, p. 101-110.

This article reports on the cases of three multiple sclerosis patients
experiencing continuous and debilitating daily fatigue over the course
of several years. Treatment with extracranially applied picotesla flux
electromagnetic fields dramatically improved symptoms of fatigue in all
three patients.

R. Sandyk, Treatment
with Weak Electromagnetic Fields Improves Fatigue Associated with Multiple
Sclerosis, International Journal of Neurosci, 84(1-4),

February 1996, p. 177-186.

This article reports on the cases of two female patients with chronic
progressive-stage multiple sclerosis who suffered from regular worsening
of their symptoms starting approximately a week prior to menstruation
and abating at menstruation onset. Such symptoms were resolved in both
patients two months following the start of treatment with the extracranial
application of weak electromagnetic fields.

R. Sandyk, Premenstrual
Exacerbation of Symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis is Attenuated Treatment
with Weak Electromagnetic Fields, International Journal of Neurosci, 83(3-4),

December 1995, p. 187-198.

This article reports on the case of a 64-year-old female patient with
a 22-year history of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Two 30-minute
treatments with low-level electromagnetic fields produced a marked improvement
in a variety of symptoms.

R. Sandyk R.P. Iacono, Resolution of Longstanding Symptoms of Multiple
Sclerosis Application of PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields, International
Journal of Neurosci, 70(3-4), June 1993, p. 255-269.

Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that pulsed
electromagnetic fields administered daily over a period of 15 days proved
to be an effective treatment in reducing spasticity and incontinence associated
with multiple sclerosis.

A. Guseo, Double-Blind
Treatments with Pulsating Electromagnetic Field in Multiple Sclerosis,
Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium,

May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 85-89.

Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that
pulsed electromagnetic fields administered daily over a period of 15 days
is a generally effective treatment in reducing symptoms associated with
multiple sclerosis, with the most positive improvements involving the
alleviation of spasticity and pain.

A. Guseo, Pulsing Electromagnetic Field Therapy of Multiple Sclerosis
the Gyuling-Bordacs Device: Double-Blind, Cross-Over and Open Studies,
Journal of Bioelectr., 6(1), 1987, p. 23-35.

Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that
exposure to magnetic fields produced beneficial clinical effects in patients
suffering from cerebral paralysis and in patients with multiple sclerosis.

A. Sieron, The Variable
Magnetic Fields in the Complex Treatment of Neurological Diseases, European
Bioelectromagnetics Association, 3rd International Congress,

29 February – 3 March 1996, Nancy, France.

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